Most of us understand health care as a system in which certain values and moral standards must apply. We will try to grasp different types of health care sys- tems, the way they work and, above all, specify how the systems differ from one another. We will investigate the issue of the access to health care and we will show how the theoretical and practical approaches to health issues intersect and influence each other. We will try to explain why this occurs on the background of socio-political theories and concepts that currently resonate in this area. Different theoretical bases as well as different approaches to health care require systematization and specification of criteria of differences, so that we can orientate ourselves in these issues and know the basic approaches that are present in contemporary health care. The point is, however, to show how moral approaches and moral judgments affect the methods and methodologies that are used in relation to these issues and how this may impact on the practical delivery of health care.