Instead of the existential quantifier Bernard Bolzano uses his notion of Gegenständlichkeit einer Vorstellung an sich (objectivity of a representation in itself). This approach makes it possible for him to solve the traditional problem of the predication of existence (i.e. whether it is possible to consider existence as a standard property of individuals) in accordance with an approach common today, namely to take existence to be primarily a property („occupation“) of a corresponding representation in itself, and not a characteristic of individuals. However, Bolzano considers a property of real existence to be attributable also to particular individuals, which is essentially different from the usual practice.
*Príspevok je chránený zákonom o autorskom práve a právach súvisiacich s autorským právom (autorský zákon).