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Vplyv cynizmu na stoicizmus

Filozofia, 2002, roč. 57, č. 6, s. 405-430.
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The paper gives an outline of the Socratic Cynic school and its influence on Stoicism. In its first part the author gives a general characteristics of Cynicism of the 4th century B. C., showing, that the Cynic movment was based on the presupposition of an absolute incompatibility of virtue with the laws of (existing) polis. From the doxographical materials available it shows the basic characteristics of the Cynic virtue, such as self-sufficiency, the importance of physical work, stressing the poverty, a new approach to women and an ascetic way of life. The second part of the paper is devoted to the relationship between Cynicism and Stoicism itself. It tries to highlight the consequences of the stoic merging of physics and ethics for a new understanding of life according to nature. The author argues, that the theory of appropriation - allowing for a value differentiation of the sphere of the indifferent in Stoa - introduced by the stoics was decisive for a new understanding of this Cynical philosophers' challenge. In conclusion an interesting personality of a cynicizing Stoic-apostate Ariston of Chia is presented, whose coming back to Cynicism in the frame of Stoa could not bring about a consequent revival of the original - often radical and exhibitionist - views an practices of old Cynics.

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