The rise of the modern world has been from its beginning on accompanied by the reflections on the decline of culture. The breakdown of the traditional behavioural norms used to be related to the rise od political crimiality, which until recently seemed to have replaced the religious fanatism, inquisition and Crusades. It seeems today, that we wittness the end of the "political era", the era of great secular ideologies, which in our century have mobilized unprecedent destructive powers. And the threat of extremisms is still present. The argument of the paper is designed to show the fundamental meaning of the moral rules for the functioning and further development of the society, as well as the the threat represented by the berakdown of these rules, sometimes related to as transcendental. The notion "transcendental" points out to the limits of our intellect. It is then not surprising, that the moral rules as a part of cultural heritage have been up to now sanctioned by religion. The paper therefore begins with the explanation of the concepts of religion and culture. The
examination focuses on so called "west" cultural region.
*Príspevok je chránený zákonom o autorskom práve a právach súvisiacich s autorským právom (autorský zákon).