In Callicles’ monologue (491e5-492c8) from the dialogue Gorgias the term φρόνησις is used only in one place. The most important Socrates’ opponent applied it when defending his own conception of a good life. His ideal of a good life is represented by a ruler who must not restrict himself in any way. This means that Callicles rejects the moral ideal, i. e. temperance (σωφροσύνη). His ruler is expected to act in opposition to σωφροσύνη and let his desires to grow as intense as possible. These maximized desires are to be developed by means of his manliness and intelligence (φρόνησις). The main aim of the article is to answer the question: Why in Plato’s Callicles σωφροσύνη and φρόνησις are opposite terms?