Article/Publication Details

Parmenides: The Founding Father of the European Dualistic Thinking

(Original title: Parmenides - praotec európskeho duálneho myslenia)
Filozofia, 2002, vol. 57, No 4, pp. 233-244.
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The rational conceptual philosophical thinking originated in ancient Greece on the basis of mythical imaginary thinking. The bipolar-complementary thinking still had its place in Miletian philosophy, although not in the form of images, but in the form of conceptual variants and archetypal representations of archaic ontology. The Dyonisian cult and orfism contributed to the development of rational thinking through the realization of the individuality and the notion of the only genuine divinity - Zeus, which at the same time embodied the whole universe. On the basis of these ideas Xenophanes built up his conceptual image as the fixed and the only essence of the universe, and Pythagoras his conception of fixed and unchangeable numeral essences. Then came Parmenides, who founded the metaphysics through the determination of the duality of One and Many, the being and the non-being. It was a dichotomic break and turning away of the bipolar-complementary thinking from the dualistic type of thinking. This authorś claim is supported by Parmenides criticism of his predecessors. Parmenides elevated the Being to a "pure concept" or abstraction. This radical turn in the history of Greek thinking meant not only the dismissal of the previous philosophical views, but also the beginning of the rational abstract thinking on the basis of logical laws, namely the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction.

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