The aim of the paper is to examine various aspects of holism, especially with regard to scientific knowledge and scientific realism. It is concerned with that tradition of holism, which has been largely influenced by W. V. O. Quine, but in some respects also by T. S. Kuhn. It offers a survey of different versions of holism (metaphysical holism, meaning holism, explanatory holism, confirmation holism, empirical holism, etc.), evaluating at the same time various aspects of the holistic approach. Attention is paid also to anti-holistic critique ant its contribution to understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge.