In Slovak philosophy of the 1940s the problematic of the real existence of the external world as well as the interpretation of the process of cognition became the most burning issues. This had several reasons: a new generation of professional philosophers was taking the philosophical floor. They had to face the predomination of Czech positivists and critical realists of the previous period; they have also to respond to intuitive realism (especially its epistemology); and last, but not least, they also had to take into account dialectical materialism and its growing influence after the World war 2nd. Thus philosophers like S. Felber, I. Hrušovský, J. Cíger, and M. Topoľský had to search for their own grounds on which to build their philosophical systems. However, they did not automatically accept the existing solutions, but rather found their own ways of practicing philosophy.