The paper deals with a new physical conception of the world as developed in the recent theory of strings. In a brief introduction the author outlines the history of searching for the „corner-stones“ of the reality beginning with ancient conceptions up to the relativity and quantum physics. The latter, however, proved as incomplete and excluding each other. Among the theories trying to unite them into one consistent and non-contradictory conception is the theory of strings. The paper shows its contribution to articulating the new physical conception of the world, as well as the theoretical, philosophical and methodological questions brought about by the theory.