Antisthenes (444 – 365 BC.), a predecessor of the Cynic philosophical school, brings an original conception of temperance as a defence against the negative consequences of the excessive pursuit of delight. Antisthenes places an emphasis on experience; he refuses Plato’s attempts to define theories of ideas. He examines the power of the word and pursues moral objectives. His “naturalistic economy of rational choice” prepares the ground for the Cynics’ shift to nature. The theory of “austerity” is discussed in relation to behavioural economy and the theory of rational choice. The main premise is Antisthenes’ nominalist logic and his well-known ability to per-suade, which presupposes a dialogue of free people, as well as love, friendship and cooperation.