The study deals with the ideas of the Russian scientist V. I. Vernadsky. We investigate how the thesis of scientific thinking as a planetary phenomenon led him to formulate the concept of noosphere. We analyze the concept of noosphere proposed by him in the form of a transformed biosphere. We analyze Vernadsky’s understanding of the categories of reason, as well as the scientific thinking and elaboration of Vernadsky’s ideas by his Russian successors Moiseev, Ursul and critics. In the conclusion, we outline the realism of the concept of noosphere in the context of current developments.