We focus on exploring the synergy and conflict of identities within contemporary societies. The cultural consciousness of current societies develops in contradictory forms. On the one hand, our ability to differentiate, to perceive differences, to reflect the phenomena in their complexity, is growing. On the other hand, the attractiveness of simplified interpretations of problems of current societies is increasing. Therefore, we need to come to such forms of thinking, which will enable us to comprehend the complexity of contemporary societies both in structural and historical terms. We are not concerned merely with specific sequences of historical processes but also with the process of selection and preference (or assessment) of certain modes of action and reaction.